segunda-feira, 30 de maio de 2011


There is evidence of superstition among ancient civilizations. But this is not something of the past. Superstition is part of our modern world, too.
Some very old beliefs are present among us today: a broken mirror, for example, means seven years of bad luck. A black cat brings you bad luck. A black cat brings you bad luck when it crosses your way. Some people never walk under a ladder because it also means bad luck. There is a very curious belief among New Yorkers: 13 is a sign of bad luck and many buildings have no thirteenth floor.
There is also a place for good luck in superstition. Some charms and beliefs are popular because they bring good luck. A horseshoe, for example, or a four-leaf clover are popular good luck charms around the world. In Brazil, it is very difficult to find a ticket of Federal Lottery with a final 13 – this is the lucky number. There is another curious belief in Brazil: three kisses on the face of a single girl bring marriage.
Superstition is certainly part of the past, present, and future life of man. For some people, it is ignorance; for others, it is an important part of their lives.
Source: Inglês – Vol. Único – Graded English – Ed. Moderna – Elisabeth Prescher, Ernesto Pasqualin, Eduardo Amos
A – Answer the questions in Portuguese. Find the answers in the text.
1. O texto apresenta uma superstição que existe na cidade de Nova York. Qual é?
2. Superstição  é coisa do passado?
3. Quais são os dois amuletos de boa sorte que o autor menciona?

B – Write T for True and F for False according to the text.
(      ) A horseshoe and a black cat are good luck signs.
(      ) There is no superstition in Brazil.
(      ) There are no floors in the buildings in New York.
(      ) There is evidence of superstition in our world.
(      ) Thirteen is a lucky number in the Federal Lottery in Bazil.

C – Choose  the correct alternative according to thetext.
1. Some very old beliefs
a) are good luck charms
b) are part of our world
c) bring seven years of bad luck

2. A broken mirror:
a) brings bad luck
b)  brings good luck
c) is something of the future

3. Thirteen:
a) is a good luck number in the Brazilian Federal Lottery
b) is a good lucky number in New York.
c) means seven years of bad luck.

4. Three kisses on the faces on a single girl:
a) is a good luck charm.
b) bring bad luck.
c) bring marriage.

5. A horseshoe and:
a) a black cat bring good luck.
b) a four-leaf clover bring good luck.
c) a four-leaf clover bring bad luck.

D – Answer the questions according to the ext.
1 – Where there is evidence of superstition?

2 – What is the old belief about a broken mirror?

3 – What is the old belief about a black cat?

4 – When is a ladder a sign of bad luck?

5 – Why aren’t there thirteenth floors in many buildings in New York?

sábado, 28 de maio de 2011

Leitura: How to Celebrate Festa Junina in Brazil

eHow Holidays & Celebrations Editor
This article was created by a professional writer and edited by experienced copy editors, both qualified members of the Demand Media Studios community. All articles go through an editorial process that includes subject matter guidelines, plagiarism review, fact-checking, and other steps in an effort to provide reliable information.
In Brazil, the Festa Junina is the festival to celebrate Saint John the Baptist. In pagan times, the festival was a celebration of the summer solstice. The Festa Junina festival is held in June, which is the start of the Brazilian winter. Many of the festivities were imported to Brazil from Europeans and they retain a European flavor.



Things You'll Need

  • Raincoat
  • Umbrella
  • Quadrilha outfit
  • Brightly colored clothes
    • 1
      Dress warmly. Although Brazil is a warm country, Festa Junina occurs during the winter.
    • 2
      Bring along your rain gear. Brazil experiences a lot of rain during the early winter, when the Festa Junina is celebrated. Bring along an umbrella and a raincoat to keep dry.
    • 3
      Dress up for the Quadrilha. This traditional dance is a Brazilian form of square dancing that is a major part of the Festa Junina celebrations. Men dress in suspenders to mimic farm hands and women dress up like gap-toothed, pig-tailed farm girls. The dance celebrates Brazilian county music.
    • 4
      Try out several of the regional foods served during Festa Junina. The festival is also a celebration of harvesting corn, so many dishes feature corn. Traditional dishes include canjica, which tastes a bit like sweet popcorn, and pamonha, which is akin to a tamale.
    • 5
      Travel to the Brazilian city of Caruaru to celebrate the largest Festa Junina gathering in the country. Caruaru has competed with other cities in the past to hold the largest celebration and was awarded that distinction by the Guinness Book of World Records.
    • 6
      Pace your drinking to enjoy the whole festival. In typical Brazilian fashion, Festa Junina can last up to 2 weeks long, with huge parties raging the entire time.
    • 7
      Wear colorful clothing. While many people dress in costumes similar to the peasant-like Quadrilha costumes, even those who don't will sport brightly colored outfits to praise Saint John the Baptist.
    • 8
      Remain in populated areas for the duration of the festival. Gunfire is one of the traditional ways to celebrate St. Joan's birthday, so hanging out in dark or deserted areas may be dangerous.
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Tips & Warnings

  • Book your hotel and flight early if you are going to Brazil to celebrate Festa Junina. The solstice festival is very popular in the Northeast especially, so reservations go quickly.
  • Keep your money in a pouch or wallet on the inside of your clothing. Large festival crowds can attract pick-pockets.
  • Leave the kids at home. Like many Brazilian festivals, the solstice celebration can get quite rowdy.


Leitura: What World Should Expect from Obama & Dilma: The End of Poverty Through Education

2011 - March 2011
Written by Cristovam Buarque   
Sunday, 20 March 2011 16:25
Presidents Dilma and ObamaSince the end of the Cold War, presidents have no longer been defenders of ideas and strategic positions in international geopolitics.  Globalization has reduced the national leaders to local agendas, above all to commercial agendas.
Globalization has still not produced the global statespeople that the world needs.  World leaders must perceive the need to go beyond commerce, stop seeing the borders of their countries as a customs and immigration problem and understand their role in the architecture of the future world.
President Barack Obama and President Dilma Rousseff are among the few leaders in the position to see the world as global statespeople, and not merely as leaders of their countries.  Both have a biography committed to values and principles, with banners of struggle.
They have ideas about and sensitivity to worldwide problems.  In addition, as a black man and as a woman, they share a biopolitical genesis different from their predecessors.  This gives them new sensibilities and positions in relation to the future.
President Obama's visit to Brazil and his dialogue with President Dilma, therefore, give us the hope that the meeting will produce something historical and will not merely be another friendly diplomatic gesture.
In the first place, we should perceive their mutual greatness if we remember that it is the first time that a U.S. president has come to Brazil before his Brazilian colleague visited the United States.
But to leave their mark on history the two presidents must transform the Encounter into a Summit Meeting of two global statespeople, defining a common agenda for world problems.
The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and terrorism should be among the principal concerns of this agenda, and commercial matters cannot be forgotten, but international problems should come first.
The two presidents need to place at least three other topics on the agenda:  the struggle against poverty, recalling President Dilma's statement that "a rich world is a world without poverty"; the subordination of the economy to ecological equilibrium; and the defense of human rights.
Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman, already in the spirit of Cold War statesmanship, launched the Marshall Plan for the reconstruction of Europe.
President John F. Kennedy, still in the spirit of the Cold War, launched the Food for Peace program and several support programs for the economic development of each underdeveloped country.
Presidents Obama and Dilma must go much further than this, adapting to the demands of the 21st-century globalized world, a world demanding policies that no longer come unilaterally from the USA and are no longer merely concerned with each country's economic development.
Together they must launch the ideas for an anti-poverty Global Social Plan, above all for overcoming poverty through education, with the worldwide adoption of programs like the Bolsa Escola and the support of quality schooling for all the world's children.  And they should present a Letter to be submitted to the Chiefs of State at the "Rio + 20" Meeting in 2012.
Dilma and Obama have shown their concerns for the environment, especially for the search for alternative energy sources, and together they could carry this discussion to the world.  They should sign an alliance updating the concept of the auto-determination of the world's peoples to recognize the world as a condominium of countries with mutual responsibilities:  to human rights; against terrorism; to impeding the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction; and to permitting the use of the technical advance for the service of all humanity.
Dilma and Obama represent strong countries and share the personal qualities needed to transform a meeting of two presidents into a summit meeting of two global statespersons.  Brazil, the United States and the world, we today and the future generations - all of us hope that they will take advantage of the opportunity that history, their personal biographies and the merit of each of them will offer us.
Cristovam Buarque is a professor at the University of Brasília and a PDT senator for the Federal District.  He is the vice president of the Brazilian Senate Foreign Relations Commission. You can visit his website at, follow him on Twitter at in Portuguese and in English and write to him at
New translations of his works of fiction The Subterranean Gods and Astricia are now available on
Translated from the Portuguese by Linda Jerome (

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Gerald Celente - The First Great War of the 21st Century
written by Ricardo C. Amaral, April 05, 2011

Here is what I posted today on Brazzil Magazine, the Elite Trader Economics Forum, and on other places on the web:

Ricardo: Ederson, if you read my articles going back to 2002 then you would know that I was against the United States attacking Iraq even before the United States made that terrible mistake.

And since 2002 I wrote many times over the years that Afghanistan is where former superpowers go to die a slow death.

Since before the US attacked Iraq I said on my articles it was all about pillaging the oil and the natural resources of these countries.

I grew up in Brazil and as a young man I came to the United States and during all that time I was told that the Soviet Union was a "Rogue Nation" and an "Evil Empire." But somewhere along the way the United States changed in a drastic way - and today we can say that the United States has turned itself into the "Rogue Nation" that everybody has to worry about.

The reality is: Something went drastically wrong with the United States, and that old good country of the past it does not exist anymore - today we have only the wreckage of the old country and a country in decline in every way.

Barack Obama was elected because people wanted "CHANGE" - He changed nothing, and he just became a member of the old club that had been wrecking this country for a long time.

A lot people that I know are really pissed with the government of the United States and all these scoundrels of Wall Street.

Most American politicians (with very few exceptions) are not worth even the food that they eat.

Gerald Celente -The First Great War of the 21st Century – April 3, 2011

Bretton Woods Conference of 2011 = (Panic time)
written by Ricardo C. Amaral, April 09, 2011

Ricardo: Today when I was reading an article published on the Financial Times (UK) “Speculators send Brazil's real soaring to new heights” - I was shaking my head and wondering why they can't grasp in Brazil that China and the United States is playing a different game than Brazil.

In this game Brazil has become the “Patsy” - as a result of QE1, QE2, and very soon QE3 and so forth where the United States is exporting inflation to Brazil, and the speculators are pushing the real up with the carry trade between the real vs. the US dollar and the yuan.

The FT article said: “Brazil's currency has surged over the past two weeks, breaking one of market's most important resistance levels, as speculators have seized on an apparent shift in government policy.”


In the last 2 years the real appreciated against the US dollar by 45 percent – and now the speculators are going to take Brazil for a ride.

Today Brazil has become the “Patsy” and Brazil it's in the business of exporting jobs out of Brazil and undermining the foundations of the Brazilian economy.

This foreign exchange policy of the Brazilian government is creating a major problem for the Brazilian economy, because is increasing the cost of doing business in Brazil and products made in Brazil is becoming very expensive, and they are also putting the tourism industry out of business in Brazil. Brazil is becoming a very expensive place for people from other countries to go for vacation.

It is an “economic war” and Brazil in retaliation is shooting blanks.

China and the United States are not going to change their game until the entire house of cards collapse, but in the meantime I wonder what is necessary for the Brazilian government to wake up and start playing in the same game that the US and China are playing.

Maybe the real exchange rate has to appreciate another 50 percent and Brazil has to export another 200,000 or 300,000 thousand manufacturing jobs out of Brazil, and have a real crisis in the tourism industry in Brazil, and inflation to go back to the levels that most Brazilians would prefer to forget – the level of the old bad days.

People started to grasp that the US economy and financial system is collapsing just like the Soviet Union – and the only reason they did not have a massive meltdown is because of the status of the US dollar as the main global reserve currency.

Now even Soros Soros is coming out and saying that the US dollar is no longer the main global reserve currency.

George Soros said: “US dollar is no longer the main reserve currency”...

George Soros Says China's Inflation Is `Serious Concern' – April 8, 2011


Soros Holds Bretton Woods II – April 8, 2011


Ricardo: As I have been saying for a long time the US dollar as the main reserve currency has reached the end of the line.

This weekend 400 economists and central bankers have assembled in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, to explore the way in which economic thinking needs to respond to the financial crisis, at a conference organised by the Geroge Soros-funded Institute of New Economic Thinking.

Bretton Woods Conference of 2011 = (Panic time)

Here is what Guido Mantega next move should be to fight and defend the Brazilian economy on this “Economic” and “Currency War”
written by Ricardo C. Amaral, April 09, 2011

Ricardo: Here is what Guido Mantega next move should be to fight and defend the Brazilian economy on this “Economic” and “Currency War.”

Finance Minister Guido Mantega should announce ASAP a 40 percent devaluation of the Real, and adopt a fixed rate currency system pegged to a basket of currencies including the US dollar and the Chinese yuan – a program designed to stop the “Hot Money” from going into the Brazilian market to blow all kinds of bubbles in Brazil, and also get under control the constant currency destabilizing effect that serve as a torpedo to destroy the foundations of the Brazilian economy.

This strategy is designed to protect Brazilian manufacturers, the tourism industry in Brazil, and to keep the “Hot Money” from blowing more speculative bubbles inside the Brazilian economy.

There's nothing wrong with this strategy, since the 2 countries with the 2 largest economies in the world are not playing a fair game in the international monetary arena, and Brazil should start playing the game according to their rules.

Ricardo Amaral
written by João da Silva, April 16, 2011

Finance Minister Guido Mantega should announce ASAP a 40 percent devaluation of the Real, and adopt a fixed rate currency system pegged to a basket of currencies including the US dollar and the Chinese yuan – a program designed to stop the “Hot Money” from going into the Brazilian market to blow all kinds of bubbles in Brazil, and also get under control the constant currency destabilizing effect that serve as a torpedo to destroy the foundations of the Brazilian economy.

That aint going to happen, Ricardo. Who is in charge of the BC now was trained at U of Illinois and he is warning everybody that the SELIC rate is going to go up.

I am looking forward to reading and hearing if Prez.Rousseff´s trip to PRC was a success or fracas.
Bretton Woods Conference of April 2011
written by Ricardo C. Amaral, April 17, 2011

Ricardo: From April 8 to April 11, 2011, during that entire weekend 400 world leading economists and central bankers have assembled in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, to explore the way in which economic thinking needs to respond to the financial crisis, at a conference organized by the Geroge Soros-funded Institute of New Economic Thinking.

The last time they had a similar conference it was in 1944.

It took me hours to compile this information and place it on one location – on this thread you can see the web link to most lectures, speeches and discussions that took place in the Bretton Woods Conference of April 2011.

I did watch 50 percent of these videos, and I recommend people to watch the following videos:

James Boughton reviews the history of Bretton Woods on INET's Annual Conference – April 9, 2011

James Boughton from the International Monetary Fund speaks on INET's Bretton Woods Conference on April 8, 2011. (19 min.)

Gordon Brown at INET's Bretton Woods Conference 2011

Former British Prime Minister Gordon Brown gives the keynote speech at INET's Bretton Woods Conference on April 9, 2011. He is introduced by Robert Skidelsky, Emeritus Professor of Political Economy at the University of Warwick. (54 min.)

The Architecture of Asia: Panel on INET's Brettton Woods Conference (Part 1 of 7)

Joseph Stiglitz is a Professor at Columbia University and a speaker at INET's Conference at Bretton Woods on April 10, 2011
Part 1 of 7 = 26 min.

Adair Lord Turner's keynote at INET's Bretton Woods Conference

Adair Lord Turner, Chairman of the Financial Services Authority, gives keynote address at INET's Bretton Woods Conference on April 9, 2011. He is introduced by Robert Johnson, the Director of the Institute for New Economic Thinking. (1hr. 29 min.)

Here is the location where you find the web links to the entire conference:

Bretton Woods Conference of April 2011

written by Vietnam Visa, April 23, 2011
In the first place, we should perceive their mutual greatness if we remember that it is the first time that a U.S. president has come to Brazil before his Brazilian colleague visited the United States.
purple wedding invitations
written by purple wedding invitations, April 25, 2011
Although the crowned black wedding invitations have yet to formally accept, and the King of Thailand is said to be too ill to attend, a senior source within the Foreign Office described it as a high proportion of crowned heads for a wedding that is not being treated as a state wedding.
US President Barack Obama and his pink wedding invitations Michelle are understood not to have received a wedding invitation, although they have been invited to Buckingham Palace for a state visit in May in what is being seen as a ‘sweetener’.The invitations are on thick white card measuring 8in by 6in, bevelled, gilded and stamped with red wedding invitations in gold which has then been burnished.
written by Ryan O'Shea, April 29, 2011
Barack Obama should be doing more to stop poverty. There are so many people out their who do not have a place live or anything to eat and we have people out their who are billionares. The people out there who have a lot of money and they are not putting it to good use then they are killing thousands of people each day. They should be out their donating clothes, money, and their time to the people who have nothing. If I had money I would put it to good use. You might not realize it but their are people who only make 2.50 per day or less. We need to stand together and make the world become a better place! 

Leitura: Those parties are called Festas Juninas

May 2002

Fire & Fun

The French brought to Brazil the quadrilha, which is a
theatrical dance that tells the story of a marriage in a small town.
Even today, the traditional quadrilha lyrics of
Festas Juninas
use French words.

Laura Duro
Whoever has traveled to Brazil during the month of June, has already found out that Brazilians celebrate the month with parties that can be even bigger than Carnaval in some cities. Those parties are called Festas Juninas and they celebrate saints Anthony, John and Peter with lots of traditional foods, drinks and a theatrical dance inherited from the French called quadrilha (a type of square dance).
However, the origin of this party is much older than Brazil itself. It began in Europe. The month of June being the beginning of the summer, bring crops that the population celebrated with parties and ceremonies. All over Europe, people used to make bonfires on hilltops and plains to dance around and jump over. Part of the ceremonies also was to offer the fire some of the crop and even live animals to bring luck for the next crop season. From this old practice, came the tradition of bonfires in Festas Juninas as well as all the beliefs related to the fire such as " kids cannot play with the fire", "you cannot push the firewood with your feet", and similar expressions.
Even older were the June celebrations throughout the Roman Empire. There were celebrations to the god Juno. These festivities were brought to Europe by the Greek, and goddess Juno, who is known as Hera in the Greek mythology, was celebrated in June throughout Europe, at the same time that Europeans were thanking the crop. Juno was married to Jupiter (Zeus in Greece) and she was the symbol of fertility, love and fidelity.
Juno was considered the Roman supreme goddess, married to the ruling god, Jupiter. She is believed to watch and protect all women and was called by the Romans "the one who makes the child see the light of day". To this day, many people consider the month of June, which is named after the goddess who is the patroness of marriage, to be the most favorable time to marry. With the spreading of Christianity throughout Europe many ancient traditions were eradicated but some were incorporated to the Roman Catholic Church and the marriage abilities of Juno were passed on to Saint Anthony. To these days, Saint Anthony is believed to help with marriage.
Nowadays, Brazilians do not thank for the crops because in South America this is not the crop season. As for the celebrations they extend throughout the month, commemorating Saint Anthony on June 13, Saint John on June 24, and Saint Peter on June 29.
Saint John is the most celebrated in the northeast region of Brazil. Saint Peter is known to protect fishermen and homes besides being one of the founders of the Catholic Church. Some cities also include Saint Paul in the festivities.
Every Festa Junina has a tall pole with a Saint John image hanging on it. Tradition says that Elizabeth, Saint John's mother, used a tall pole to announce the son's birth to Saint John's aunt, Mary who was expecting Jesus. In Brazil, this pole was transformed into a special attraction; it is the so-called pau-de-sebo (greased pole). The pole is covered with grease and money or any other kind of prize is placed on its top.
The Portuguese brought the Festa Junina from Europe to Brazil. Like in Brazil, Portugal celebrates June every year, with the difference that in Portugal people give more attention to Saint Anthony than to Saint John. In the big melting pot that Brazil is, Festa Junina was also well accepted by the native habitants and many more beliefs, traditions and costumes joined the party.
When the French missions came to Brazil they brought the quadrilha, which is a theatrical dance that tells the story of a marriage in a small town. Due to its origin, even today you still see some French words in the quadrilha lyrics, terms like anavam, anarrié, granche, balancê, travessê, devaiê and tour. And the quadrilha became the official dance of a Festa Junina as you can see in the quadrilha script below.
Traditional dishes
Another aspect of Festas Juninas that blended with local culture was the food. All over Brazil, the celebrations for saints Anthony, John and Peter happen June, but the food that goes along is different in each region of the country. Tasting the variety of Festa Junina's food we can experience even far away from Brazil a little flavor and feeling for this most traditional Brazilian celebration.
Starting with the Amazon, in Manaus (the capital of Amazonas State), Festa Junina is celebrated with cassava cake, sweet tapioca with coconut. The Amazonians also enjoy the podre cake, and peanut brittle, which has Brazil nuts in it. Amazonians had a strong influence from indigenous peoples who brought to the Festa Junina the tacacá (porridge of a wild cassava—tucupi—starch and shrimp served hot in a bowl), fried pocovã bananas, caruru, vatapá, cocada and aluá (pineapple peel juice).
Campina Grande, in Paraíba state, and Caruaru, in Pernambuco, are some of the most famous northeastern cities where Festas Juninas are a huge celebration, rivaling Carnaval. Instead of samba, they have 'forró', though.
Forró is a ball dance used to celebrate Festas Juninas and the music for the dance is also called forró. One of the most popular bands of forró is 'Mastruz com Leite'. One explanation not accepted by some experts for the name forró is that the word originated at the time the British were constructing railroads in the northeast region. During the weekends they used to promote outdoor balls to entertain the local workers. And to let everybody know they were welcome to the ball they used to post a sign saying 'For All'. Time went by and 'For All' became forró and the ball became a Brazilian tradition. During Festas Juninas you can find tents selling many different dishes such as canjica, pamonha, corn on the cob, mugunzá, cassava cake and peanut brittle.
Going down to the southeast region you'll also find traditional Festas Juninas in the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. There you will find canjica seasoned with roasted peanuts and coconut, soups made with beef, cassava or smoked beans, popcorn, peanut brittle and lots of sweets such as milk fudge, crystallized fruits and cajuzinho (a candy made with ground peanuts). In the south of Brazil, Festas Juninas have roasted pine nuts, popcorn, roasted peanuts, and a variety of cakes. But the most traditional is the corn cake.
Brazil celebrates its Festas Juninas with different foods, but to drink everybody has quentão. This is a hot drink made with cooked ginger in water, sugar, cinnamon, cloves and cachaça (sugar cane liquor). The name quentão literally means the big hot one and reminds us that the infusion warms you up in the chilly nights of June. To drink, Festas Juninas also have quentão made with red wine and the traditional caipirinha (margarita-like potion). By the way, another way to warm yourself up is to jump the bonfire that stands in the middle of the party. You also can climb send love letters and dance quadrilha.
Even if you don't get the chance to join Festas Juninas you still can have some of the food. We selected three of the most traditional dishes found in a Festa Junina: quentão, canjica and sweet corn pudding.

4 cups water
1 cup granulated sugar
2 oz chopped ginger
1 tbs. cloves
2 cups cachaça (can replace with vodka)
2 cinnamon sticks
In a large pot, melt the sugar with ginger, cloves and cinnamon in medium heat to become caramel colored.
Pour water and cachaça and boil the mixture for about 20 minutes.
Pour quentão through a strainer and serve hot. Makes 6 servings.

1 package white hominy (1lb)
1 qt gal milk
1/2 cup grated coconut
1/2 cup roasted peanuts (unsalted / chopped in a food processor)
1 cup granulated sugar
1 pinch salt
Wash and drain hominy. Then place grains in a plastic bowl and soak overnight.
Pour soaked grains with the remaining water in a pressure cooker. Cook for about 20 minutes after the regulator starts to blow steam or until tender. If you don't have a pressure cooker, cook the grains in a regular pot for about 60 minutes.
In a large saucepan, bring the milk to boil. Drain the hot grains in a colander and add immediately to boiling milk. Combine the spices: grated coconut, roasted peanuts, sugar and pinch of salt.
Hint: For a perfect canjica, always combine hot hominy with hot milk (both should be boiling when put together).
Serve hot in a cereal bowl. Makes 6 servings.

6 fresh sweet corn ears
1 can (12 fl oz) evaporated milk
1 can (14 oz) sweetened condensed milk
1½ cup water
1 pinch salt
Ground cinnamon to decorate.
Cut the corn from the cob. Place corn in a blender container with the water and beat for about 30 seconds.
Press the mixture against a strainer to extract the corn juice. Pour the corn juice into a medium saucepan. Add evaporated milk, sweetened condensed milk, and a pinch of salt.
Simmer the mixture in a medium heat until the mixture become creamy —about 10 minutes.
Use a wood spoon to stir the mixture for the whole 10 minutes to the mixture gets creamy.
Pour mixture into custard cups (6 oz). Sprinkle ground cinnamon.
Hint: Riper corns make a thicker pudding. Too young corns don't have enough starch; therefore they make a thinner pudding.
Serve refrigerated. Makes 6 custard cups.

How to dance quadrilha.
The theatrical dance performance inherited from the French missions follows a traditional script such as the one below:
The original in Portuguese blended with French (English translation follows):
By Mario Zan
ATENÇÃO: Aí vem o Coronel da festa para marcar a quadrilha, juntamente com o sanfoneiro, pra tocar na festa.
ATENÇÃO, PESSOAL: Vamos dar início no começo do princípio da começação da principiação do prosseguimento da prosseguição da largada da quadrilha. Metade de um lado, outra metade da banda do lado de lá. Damas e cavalheiros procurem seus pares. Metade pra cá e metade pra lá.
—Por favor, Sr. Coronel, que lado eu vou jogar?
—Pra princípio de conversa, eu não sou coronel e isso não é jogo, é quadrilha.
ATENÇÃO, sanfoneiro, eu vou dar o sinal pra você rasgar o sanfonão: ATENÇÃO, JÁ!! MARCAR PASSO! ANAVAM, quer dizer, pra frente. Todo mundo junto. Quando os pares se encontram no centro do salão, cumprimentam-se. Assim. ANARRIÊ, quer dizer, todo mundo pra trás, de marcha-ré. Isso. Afastando sempre. BALANCÊ: Cavalheiro na frente da dama, fazendo balancê.
TOUR. Dama e cavalheiro dão uns pares de voltas, juntos mas não agarrados! Olha o fiscal do salão. Tá sobrando mulher. ANAVAM DE DAMAS. Só as mulheres no centro do salão. Esquerda com esquerda. As damas dão as mãos e esperam o sinal! Golpear as damas dando volta com as mãos juntas e os cavalheiros ficam balanceando. Se aproximem dos cavalheiros. Se aproximem das cavalheiras. Peguem as mãos das damas do lado de cá, com as mãos direitas, do outro lado com as mãos esquerdas quem vê o Norte. Todo mundo de mãos dadas, aí na posição. Até a metade do salão. Pra frente. Isso. Carpindo no pé. Quem vê o Sul. Volta todo mundo pra trás de mão dada. Isso. Afastando. TRAVESSÊ. Já que as damas de mãos dadas estão no centro, puxam os cavalheiros pro lado contrário. BALANCÊ. Se balança pessoal. TOUR. Podem dançar com as damas
—Eu também quero entrar!
—Moleque não forma na roda de gente grande!
ANAVAM DE DAMAS. As damas no centro, esquerda com esquerda. Aproximem dos cavalheiros.
Isso. É a vez dos cavalheiros se aproximarem e pegarem as mãos das damas.
—Senhor, por favor, que lado eu tenho que virar?
—Siga a risca pintada de flecha.
Dobra de quatro, primeiro vira par com par, depois viram as damas no centro em seus lugares.
As damas puxam os cavalheiros e voltam pros seus lugares. Vamos girando. Igualzinho a estrela.
Desse jeito. Assim mesmo.
—Canelada não vale.
Meia-volta. Mais meia-volta.Grande-roda. BALANCÊ. TOUR. ATENÇÃO pra fazer o túnel. Vai ser isso, pessoal. Vai começar. Desse jeito. Segue. Isso é assim mesmo. Passa—passa três vez, a última que ficar. ATENÇÃO PESSOAL: Quando terminar a passagem do túnel, vai em grande roda. Assim, pessoal. Todo mundo de mão dada. Isso. Vão saindo. Fica Inácio puxando a fila. O trem está soltando fumaça. Já apitou na curva. Em seus lugares. Chora, sanfona. ANAVAM. ANARRIÊ. BALANCÊ.
DEVAIÊ. TOUR. Sanfoneiro, estique o fole do sanfonão. Escore na vizinha pra arrematar. Todo mundo. Caminho da roça. Feche os guarda-chuvas.
—Tem alguém mancando.
—Não, foi o sapato, o sapato meu que despregou.
Não descuidem das carteiras. Estourou a boiada. Sempre seguindo. Caminho da roça.
BALANCÊ. Todo mundo balanceando. TOUR. Cavalheiro dança com cavalheira. Uma mulher para cada par. Duas não vale.
—É a minha mulher e minha filha, coiso!
ANAVAM. Volta de quatro. Fazer roda de 4 pares. Assim. Rodar pra esquerda, rodar pra direita.
—Achei uma carteira.
—É minha!
—Uma carteira de cigarro vazia.
Marcar passos. Atenção, pessoal. Beijo dos anjos. As damas se beijam. Vai estralando beijo.
Agora, atenção! Beijo dos marmanjos! Oh! Oh! Os cavalheiros se abraçam.
—Barbaridade, que mulher bonita!
Rodar pra esquerda, rodar pra direita! Em seus lugares, todo mundo voltando pra seus lugares!
—Caiu a ferradura de alguém!
—Me pisaram nos pés!
—Na mão que não podia ser!
ANAVAM. ANARRIÊ. Grande Roda! Todo mundo de mão dada, formar grande roda. Isso! Rodar pra esquerda. Rodar pra direita! Dama no centro. Cavalheiro de roda! As mulheres vão pro centro de mãos dadas e os cavalheiros também de mãos dadas em forma de roda.
—Não taque tijolo no lampião!
Damas correm pra direita. Cavalheiros pra esquerda! Assim. Ao contrário.
—Arma de fogo não entra no salão.
Atenção, que vamos coroar primeiro as damas. Quando os cavalheiros estão de mãos dadas, ficar certo no par. Passe a mão por cima, coroando desse jeito. Assim. Segue pra direita, segue pra esquerda. Ta sobrando chapéu. Cavalheiro no centro, andando pelo centro. Damas de roda. Os cavalheiros formando uma roda no centro e as damas outra roda. Rodar pra esquerda. Rodar pra direita. Atenção, que vamos tirar os cavalheiros. As damas agora que coroam os cavalheiros. Rodar pra esquerda. Rodar pra direita. Grande roda. Desbotou a figura. BALANCÊ. TOUR. Atenção pro trançadinho. Segue. Passo trançado. Dama segue com a cara no cavalheiro. O Sr. aí, tire o chapéu ou sapato pra diminuir a altura. Atenção, quando chegar nos pares, vamos tirar o retrato. Isso. Sempre sorrindo, nem que seja à força. Par com par. Olhar pro fotógrafo. O suor está caindo. BALANCÊ.
—Pare o baile. Me roubaram a dentadura.
Caminho da roça! Segue as damas por fora, de braço com os cavalheiros, dando volta em roda.
—Tire as mãos do bolso dos vizinho.
Ei, pessoal, lá vem chuva! Foi só pra enganar vocês. A ponte está quebrada. Agora o pessoal volta ao contrário. Faz que vai mas não vai. Vai pra frente e vai pra trás, e vai pra frente duma vez. BALANCÊ.
TOUR. Preparar pro Granchê. As damas ficam em frente, de costas, com as mãos pro alto e os cavalheiros ficam atrás, com as mãos pro alto. Isso. Vão rodando nessa posição. Os cavalheiros dão um giro nas damas, passando-as pra trás, mas sem largar as mãos. Isso. Segue. Agora os cavalheiros largam as damas que estão sendo seguradas pelas mãos, por trás e pegam na mesma posição. Falta luz no salão.
—Tão me beliscando, coiso!
—Acabou o querozene do lampião!
GRANCHÊ. Segue Granchê. Sempre seguindo. Quando chegar no par, balancear.
—Me roubaram o guarda-chuva.
TOUR. Grande roda. Formação em estrela. Todos de braços. Todos de braços dados…

Translated quadrilha script:
Attention: Here comes the colonel to get the quadrilha started, together with the accordion player.
Attention everybody: Let's get the quadrilha started in the beginning of the begin of the initiation of the quadrilha start. Half of one side, the other half over there. Ladies and gentlemen look for your partners. Half this side, half over there.
—Please, colonel, which side should I play?
—First of all, I'm not a colonel and this is not a game, it is quadrilha.
Attention, accordion, I'm going to give the sign to start tearing the accordion apart: Attention, go! Mark the pitch. Anavam, I mean, forward. Everybody together. Greet each other when couples meet at the center of the ballroom. This way. Anarrié, I mean, backwards, get back. This way. Getting farther always.
Balance: Gentleman in front of lady, doing a balance.
Tour. Lady and gentleman give couple laps, together but not grabbing each other. Look the ballroom's inspector. There are too many women. Anavam of ladies. Only the women in the center of ballroom. Left hand with left hand. The ladies hold hands and wait for the sign! Swing the ladies holding hands and gentlemen keep dancing. Get closer to the gentlemen. Get closer to the gentlewomen. Hold the ladies' hands, this side with the right hand, with the left hand who is facing north. Everybody holding hands, there in position. Forward to the half way. Go ahead. Dragging the foot. Who is facing south. Everybody gets back holding hands. This way. Farther. Travesse. Since the ladies holding hands are in the center, pull the gentlemen to the opposite side. Balance. Keep moving everybody. Tour. You may dance with the ladies.
—I also want to join!
—Kids are not supposed to get in a grown-up's dance!
Anavam of ladies. The ladies in the center, left hand with left hand. Get closer to the gentlemen. This way. It is the gentlemen's turn to get closer and hold the ladies' hands.
—Please sir, which side should I turn?
—Follow the printed arrow.
Two couples together, first turn couple with couple, then turn ladies in the center in their positions.
The ladies pull the gentlemen and get back to their positions. Let's keep turning. Just like a star. This way. Yes, this way.
—Stepping on somebody's foot is not fair.
Half turn. More half turn. Big circle. Balance. Tour. Attention when making the tunnel. It's gonna be it everybody. Let's get started. This way. Follow me. Yes this way. Pass—pass three times the last who gets left. Attention everybody: When you finish passing the tunnel, make the big circle. This way everybody. Everybody holding hands. This way. Keep getting out. Stays Inácio pulling the row. The train is smoking. Already blew the whistle on the curve. Back to your positions. Cry, accordion. Anavam. Anarrié. Balance.
Devie. Tour. Accordion, stretch it. Hold at the person in your side to finalize. Everybody. Way back home. Close the umbrellas.
—Somebody is limping.
—No, it is my shoes, they are damaged.
Watch out for your wallets. The bulls got loose. Keep following. To the way back home. Balance. Everybody moving. Tour. Gentleman dance with gentlewoman. Just one woman for each man. Two is not fair.
—She is my spouse and this is my daughter, man !
Anavam. Come back in four. Make a circle with four couples. This way. Turn left, turn right.
—I found a wallet.
—It is mine!
—One empty cigarette wallet.
Mark the pitch. Attention everybody. Angel's kisses. The ladies kiss each other. Go smacking the kiss.
Now attention! Kiss of the big boys! Oh! Oh! The gentlemen hug each other.
—For crying out loud, what a beautiful woman!
Turn to the left, turn to the right! Back to your positions, everybody gets back to their places!
—Somebody let the horseshoe fall!
Balance. Tour.
—Somebody stepped in my feet!
—On your hand that wouldn't be!
Anavam. Anarrié. Big circle! Everybody holding hand, make the big circle. This way! Turn to the left. Turn to the right! Lady in the center. Gentleman out in the circle! The women go to the center holding hands and the gentlemen, also holding hands, make the circle.
—Don't throw brick at the lamp!
Ladies run to the right. Gentlemen run to the left! This way. The other way.
—Gun is not allowed in the ballroom.
Attention that we will crown the ladies first. When the gentlemen are holding hands, keep the right position with the couple. Pass your hands overhead, crowning this way. This way. Follows to the right, follows to the left. There is a hat left. Gentlemen in the center walking by the center. Ladies in the circle. Gentlemen making a circle in the center and ladies another circle. Turn to the left. Turn to the right. Attention that we will take the gentlemen. The ladies crown the gentlemen now. Turn to the left. Turn to the right. Big circle. What a shame. Balance. Tour. Attention to the little crossed step. Follow. Crossed step. Lady follows with face on gentleman. You, sir, take either the hat or the shoes off to lower your height. Attention, when you get to your partner we will take a photo. That is it. Always smiling, even if it is forced. Partner with partner. Look at the photographer. The sweat is dripping. Balance. Tour.
—Stop the ball. I got my denture stolen.
Time to work now! Follow the ladies outside, holding the gentleman's harm, swinging in laps.
—Take your hands off your neighbor's pocket.
Hey everybody, here comes the rain! That was just to fool you all. The bridge is broken. Now everybody turns the way back. Pretend you go but don't go. Go back and forth, and go forward all at once. Balance. Tour. Prepare to the granche. The ladies stay in front with the back turned to gentleman, with hands up and gentleman stay behind, with the hands up. That's it. Keep turning in this position. The gentlemen turn the ladies, passing them to their backs without releasing the hands. That's it. Go ahead. Now the gentlemen release the ladies who are holding hands, from the back and hold in the same position. The light goes off in the ballroom.
—You are pinching me, man!
—The lamp ran out of kerosene!
Granche. Keep going granche. Always ahead. When you reach the partner, swing.
—I got my umbrella stolen.
Tour. Big circle. Make a star. Holding arms. Everybody holding arms…
Laura Duro is an undergrad student at SUNY (State University of New York). She owns the website of traditional Brazilian recipes. She lives in Jamestown, NY and adapts to local ingredients the dishes she misses from her hometown Belo Horizonte, in Minas Gerais State. You can reach her at or visit her Website at 


1º Inglês com música - Parte 4

1º Inglês com música - Parte 3

1º Inglês com música - Parte 2

1º Inglês com música - Parte 1

quinta-feira, 26 de maio de 2011

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