terça-feira, 27 de setembro de 2011


If Clauses
Type 1 – “Real Conditions”
     Very probable +++
If + Present + Future(will+Inf.)
                  + Present (can/may)

Ø   Os verbos dados aparecem no Imperativo e/ou Futuro.
Ø  Usa-se:
 - threats (ameaças)
 - promises (promessas)
 - warnings (aviso)
 - advice (conselho)
Type 2 – wishes
     Probability ++

If + Past + Conditional (would + Inf.)
                          + could/should
Ø    Os verbos aparecem no presente.
Ø    Se aparecer negativa faz-se afirmativa e vice-versa.
Type 3
     Probability 0 (zero)

If + Past Perfect (had+3ªc.) + Conditional Perfect (would have+3ªc.)  + Could have + 3ªc.
Ø    Usa-se:
- regrets (lamentos)
- sorrous (arrependimentos)

1 – He is so lazy. That’s why his marks are bad.
2 – She knows about this so she can help us.
3 – I didn’t sleep well. That’s why I came late.
4 – Don’t do that! Your mother can punish you.
5 – Stay with him! He won’t be afraid.
6 – The word changed because technology revolutionised everything.
7 – Sophocles lived in quiet times so he thought time was something gentle.
8 – Teenagers don’t smoke so much because they have a mobile phone.
9 – He felt so badly. That’s why he went home.
10 – She was there. Taht’s why she saw the crime.
11 – He has many problems. So he feels depressed.
12 – They went to the party; that’s why they saw him.
13 – The man only stopped bacause a car passed by.
14 – Space exploration lifts the national spirit; taht’s why Americans choose it.
15 – They were disappointed because they met dishonest people.
16 – She loves him. That’s why she wants to marry him.
17 – He lost his money. He didn’t by anything.
18 – He became really depressed because his online love turned into a nightmare.
1 – If he wasn’t/weren’t so lazy, his marks wouldn’t be bad.
2 – If she didn’t know about this, she couldn’t/wouldn’t help us.
3 – If I had slept well, I wouldn’t have come.
4 – If you do that, your mother can punish you.
5 – If you stay with him, he won’t be afraid.
6 – If technology had not revolutionised everything, the world wouldn’t have changed.
7 – If Sophocles hasn’t lived in quiet times, he wouldn’t have thought time was something gentle.
8 – If teenagers didn’t have a mobile phones, they would smoke very much (more).
9 – If he hadn’t  felt so badly, he wouldn’t have gone home.
10 – If she hadn’t been there, she wouldn’t have seen the crime.
11 – If he didn’t have many problems, he wouldn’t feel depressed.
12 – If they hadn’t gone to the party, they wouldn’t have seen him.
13 – If a car hadn’t passed by, the man wouldn’t have stopped.
14 – If Space exploration didn’t lift the national spirit, Americans wouldn’t choose it.
15 – If they hadn’t met dishonest people, they wouldn’t have been disappointed.
16 – If she didn’t love him, she wouldn’t want to marry him.
17 – If he hadn’t lost his money, he would have bought something.
18 – If his online love hadn’t turned into a nightmare, he wouldn’t have become really depressed.
 Source: http://www.notapositiva.com/resumos/ingles/ifclause.htm

Mixed Conditionals

Unreal conditionals (type II + III) sometimes can be mixed, that is, the time of the if clause is different from the one of the main clause.
Past --> Present
If I had taken an aspirin, I wouldn't have a headache now.

Past --> Future
If I had known that you are going to come by tomorrow, I would be in then.

Present --> Past
If she had enough money, she could have done this trip to Hawaii.

Present --> Future
If I were you, I would be spending my vacation in Seattle.

Future --> Past
If I weren't flying to Detroit, I would have planned a trip to Vancouver.

Source: http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/grammar/mixed_conditionals.htm

ZERO CONDITIONAL  à GENERAL FACTS     ( If + simple present , Simple present )
Example:  If you heat water, it evaporates.
  1. If it ________ (rain), the dams ___________ (become) full.
  2. Ice __________ (melt) if you ___________ (heat) it.
  3. If you _________ (throw) a ball to the west, it _________ (go) farther.
  4. People _________ (die) if they _____________ (not/eat) anything.
  5. If you _________ (put) water in a freezer, it __________ (turn) into ice.

                                  ( If + simple present , Will/Won’t+ V1  )
Example:  If it is sunny tomorrow, we will go for a picnic by the river.
1. If Maria _________ (pass) all her exams, she ___________(travel) to Europe next year.
2. We __________ (go) to the beach if it ____________ (not/be) rainy this afternoon.
3. _____ you _____(come) with us if your parents _______ (let) you?
4. They __________ (not/have) a party if they __________ (not/have) enough money.
5. If I ________ (learn) how to play chess very well, I ________ (join) chess club.

                                  ( If + simple past ,  Would/Wouldn’t + V1  )
Example:  If I were a famous singer, I would have a lot of money.
1. If I _______ (be) you, I _________ (move) to another house.
2. Sally _________ (buy) that dress if she _______ (have) enough money.
3.If Bob ________ (live) in a small town, he __________ (get) bored easily.
4. We __________ (go) out if we _______ (not/be) very busy now.
5. If my dad ________ (become) a millionaire, I ___________ (drive) a Porsche.

Fill in the gaps with IF CLAUSE  type 0-1-2  .  Use the words in brackets:
1. Bob is a poor boy. If he ________ (be) rich, he __________ (live) in a villa.
2. If I _________ (can/pass) all of my exams, I __________ (graduate) next term.
3.If someone _______ (tell) me a lie, I _________ (get) angry with him/her.
4. Mr. Woody hasn’t won  lottery. If he ________ (win) a lottery, he _________ (spend) all his money for his grandchildren.
5. If her husband _________ (not/come) to the ceremony, Jane ________(not/attend)
6. What ____________(happen) if you _________ (shake) a can of Cola before opening it?
7.Melissa is ill now. She ______________ (join) the party if she _________ (not/be) ill.
8. What ______ you _____ (do) if you ________ (become) the headteacher of the school?
9. What ______ you _____ (do) if you __________ (finish) this exercise earlier than your friends.
10.  What _____ you _____ (do) if you _________ (find) a wallet in the street?

Source: www.eslprintables.com

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