terça-feira, 27 de setembro de 2011

Reported speech - English Grammar - www.englisch-hilfen.de

Reported speech - English Grammar - www.englisch-hilfen.de
Statements

1) If the sentence starts in the present, there is no backshift of tenses in Reported speech.
Example: Susan: "I work in an office." Susan says that she works in an office.

2) If the sentence starts in the past, there is often backshift of tenses in Reported speech. (see: Note)
Example: Susan: "I work in an office." Susan said that she worked in an office.


from                           to
Simple Present         Simple Past
Simple Past               Past Perfect
Present Perfect        Past Perfect
will                           would
Progressive forms
am/are/is                 was/were
was/were                 had been
has been                  had been

from                                              to
Peter: "I work in the garden."         Peter said that he worked in the garden.
Peter: "I worked in the garden."     Peter said that he had worked in the garden.
Peter: "I have worked in the garden."
Peter: "I had worked in the garden."
Peter: "I will work in the garden."     Peter said that he would work in the garden.
Peter: "I can work in the garden."     Peter said that he could work in the garden.
Peter: "I may work in the garden."     Peter said that he might work in the garden.
Peter: "I would work in the garden."
(could, might, should, ought to)     Peter said that he would work in the garden.
(could, might, should, ought to)
Progressive forms
Peter: "I'm working in the garden."     Peter said that he was working in the garden.
Peter: "I was working in the garden."     Peter said that he had been working in the garden.
Peter: "I have been working in the garden."
Peter: "I had been working in the garden."

If the sentence contains an expression of time, you must change it as well.

Peter: "I worked in the garden yesterday."
Peter said that he had worked in the garden the day before.

Shifting of expressions of time
this (evening)          that (evening)
today/this day         that day
these (days)             those (days)
now                        then
(a week) ago          (a week) before
last weekend           the weekend before / the previous weekend
here                       there
next (week)            the following (week)
tomorrow               the next/following day

Note:

In some cases the backshift of tenses is not necessary, e.g. when statements are still true.

John: "My brother is at Leipzig university."
John said that his brother was at Leipzig university. or
John said that his brother is at Leipzig university.

or

Mandy: "The sun rises in the East."
Mandy said that the sun rose in the East. or
Mandy said that the sun rises in the East.












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